It shows all your assets and liabilities.
Consider your personal balance sheet.
You may own a house. That is an asset on your balance sheet. In finance we call it a fixed asset, because you’ll keep it probably for a long time.
You may then have a mortgage secured on your house. That is a liability on your balance sheet. We call it a long-term liability, because you’ll have it for a long time.
So you may have a car. Again an asset. If you have a car loan to fund it, then that’s a liability.
Cash in your bank account is called a current asset. Current because it is liquid. That means it is cash or easy to convert into cash.
If you are overdrawn you have a current liability, because we may have to repay it soon.
If you are self employed you pay your tax once a year. So each month a tax liability grows on your balance sheet.
A company balance sheet is exactly the same.
A list at any point in time of all the assets and liabilities the company has.
If you have more assets than liabilities, then that is a good thing.
If you have more liabilities than assets, then you could go bust.